Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD.
Sox2 is a transcriptional regulator that is highly expressed in retinal astrocytes, yet its function in these cells has not previously been examined. To understand its role, we conditionally deleted Sox2 from the population of astrocytes and examined the consequences on retinal development. We found that Sox2 deletion does not alter the migration of astrocytes, but it impairs their maturation, evidenced by the delayed upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) across the retina.
Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation.
Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons.
Cycles of alcohol and stress are hypothesized to contribute to alcohol use disorders. How this occurs is poorly understood, although both alcohol and stress activate the neuroimmune system – the immune molecules and cells that interact with the nervous system. The effects of alcohol and stress on the neuroimmune system are mediated in part by peripheral signaling molecules.
During late gestation the placental epithelial interface becomes highly folded, which involves changes in stromal hyaluronan. Hyaluronan is composed of glucoronate and N-acetyl-glucosamine. We hypothesized that supplementing gestating dams with glucosamine during this time would support placental folded-epithelial-bilayer development and increase litter size. In Exp. 1, gilts were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO).
Coping strategies have been associated with differential stress responsivity, perhaps providing a valuable neurobiological marker for susceptibility to the emergence of depressogenic symptoms or vulnerability to other anxiety-related disorders. Rats profiled with a flexible coping phenotype, for example, exhibit increased neurobiological markers of emotional regulation compared to active and passive copers (Bardi et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2014).
Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) matures during adolescence to adult levels. Binge drinking is prevalent in adolescent humans, and could alter brain neurogenesis and maturation in a manner that persists into adulthood. To determine the impact of adolescent binge drinking on adult neurogenesis, Wistar rats received adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (5.0 g/kg/day, i.g., 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day, P25–P54) and sacrificed on P57 or P95. Neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation using immunohistochemistry was determined in the DG and SVZ.
The anticholinesterase paraoxon (Pxn) is related to military nerve agents that increase acetylcholine levels, trigger seizures, and cause excitotoxic damage in the brain. In rat hippocampal slice cultures, high-dose Pxn was applied resulting in a presynaptic vulnerability evidenced by a 64% reduction in synapsin IIb (syn IIb) levels, whereas the postsynaptic protein GluR1 was unchanged. Other signs of Pxn-induced cytotoxicity include the oxidative stress-related production of stable 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts.
Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified.
We have performed a series of in vitro and in vivo studies using the KCa3.1 channel inhibitor, Senicapoc. Efficacy studies of Senicapoc were conducted in toxin-, thioacetamide (TAA) and high fat diet (HFD)-induced models of liver fibrosis in rats. Efficacy and pharmacodynamic effects of Senicapoc was determined through biomarkers of apoptosis, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary manipulation can reliably induce early-stage atherosclerosis and clinically relevant changes in vascular function in an established, well-characterized non-human primate model.
Contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating life-long debilitation in which there are currently no effective treatments. The primary injury site presents a complex environment marked by subsequent secondary pathophysiological cascades involving excessive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production, glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, and delayed neuronal apoptosis.
Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has been associated with development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The mechanisms and signaling pathways whereby Cd causes pathological peribronchiolar fibrosis, airway remodeling and subsequent airflow obstruction remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether low dose Cd exposure induces vimentin phosphorylation and YAP1 activation leading to peribronchiolar fibrosis and subsequent airway remodeling.
TNFα is persistently elevated in many injury and disease conditions. Previous reports of cytotoxicity of TNFα for oligodendrocytes and their progenitors suggest that the poor endogenous remyelination in patients with traumatic injury or multiple sclerosis may be due in part to persistent inflammation. Understanding the effects of inflammatory cytokines on potential cell therapy candidates is therefore important for evaluating the feasibility of their use.
The present study was designed to compare clinically and radiographically between leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) and L-PRF mixed with bone graft [platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) block] in ridge splitting technique (RST) with simultaneous implant placement. This study was carried out on 30 patients with partial edentulous narrow anterior maxillary ridge.
Although deficiencies in porcine blastocyst elongation play a significant role in early embryonic mortality and establishment of within-litter developmental variation, the exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased within the uterine milieu during early porcine pregnancy and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that binds to cell surface integrins on the uterine endometrium and trophectoderm, promoting cell adhesion and migration.
The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas in histological preparations of human brain tissue, determine sulci most consistently related with mPFC areal boundaries, and use these sulci to delineate mPFC areas in MRIs.
Cerebral ischemic stroke accounts for more than 80% of all stroke cases. During cerebral ischemia, reactive oxygen species produced in brain tissue induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. D3T, the simplest compound of the cyclic, sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, is found in cruciferous vegetables and has been reported to induce antioxidant genes and glutathione biosynthesis through activation of Nrf2.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of circumferential tumor location on circumferential resection margin (CRM) status and the depth of tumor invasion in mid and low rectal cancer.