Brain Inflammation and Alzheimer's-Like Pathology in Individuals Exposed to Severe Air Pollution

Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation.

Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the pyramidal tract in developing rats

Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons.

Alcohol and Stress Activation of Microglia and Neurons: Brain Regional Effects

Cycles of alcohol and stress are hypothesized to contribute to alcohol use disorders. How this occurs is poorly understood, although both alcohol and stress activate the neuroimmune system – the immune molecules and cells that interact with the nervous system. The effects of alcohol and stress on the neuroimmune system are mediated in part by peripheral signaling molecules.

Glucosamine supplementation during late gestation alters placental development and increases litter size

During late gestation the placental epithelial interface becomes highly folded, which involves changes in stromal hyaluronan. Hyaluronan is composed of glucoronate and N-acetyl-glucosamine. We hypothesized that supplementing gestating dams with glucosamine during this time would support placental folded-epithelial-bilayer development and increase litter size. In Exp. 1, gilts were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized (UHO).

Profiling coping strategies in male and female rats: Potential neurobehavioral markers of increased resilience to depressive symptoms

Coping strategies have been associated with differential stress responsivity, perhaps providing a valuable neurobiological marker for susceptibility to the emergence of depressogenic symptoms or vulnerability to other anxiety-related disorders. Rats profiled with a flexible coping phenotype, for example, exhibit increased neurobiological markers of emotional regulation compared to active and passive copers (Bardi et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2014).

Persistent Decreases in Adult Subventricular and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Following Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) matures during adolescence to adult levels. Binge drinking is prevalent in adolescent humans, and could alter brain neurogenesis and maturation in a manner that persists into adulthood. To determine the impact of adolescent binge drinking on adult neurogenesis, Wistar rats received adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (5.0 g/kg/day, i.g., 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day, P25–P54) and sacrificed on P57 or P95. Neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation using immunohistochemistry was determined in the DG and SVZ.

Inhibitor of Endocannabinoid Deactivation Protects Against In Vitro and In Vivo Neurotoxic Effects of Paraoxon

The anticholinesterase paraoxon (Pxn) is related to military nerve agents that increase acetylcholine levels, trigger seizures, and cause excitotoxic damage in the brain. In rat hippocampal slice cultures, high-dose Pxn was applied resulting in a presynaptic vulnerability evidenced by a 64% reduction in synapsin IIb (syn IIb) levels, whereas the postsynaptic protein GluR1 was unchanged. Other signs of Pxn-induced cytotoxicity include the oxidative stress-related production of stable 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts.

Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified.

Anti-steatotic and anti-fibrotic effects of the KCa3.1 channel inhibitor, Senicapoc, in non-alcoholic liver disease

We have performed a series of in vitro and in vivo studies using the KCa3.1 channel inhibitor, Senicapoc. Efficacy studies of Senicapoc were conducted in toxin-, thioacetamide (TAA) and high fat diet (HFD)-induced models of liver fibrosis in rats. Efficacy and pharmacodynamic effects of Senicapoc was determined through biomarkers of apoptosis, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis.

Diet-induced early-stage atherosclerosis in baboons: Lipoproteins, atherogenesis, and arterial compliance

The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary manipulation can reliably induce early-stage atherosclerosis and clinically relevant changes in vascular function in an established, well-characterized non-human primate model.

Mitochondrial transplantation after spinal cord injury: effects on tissue bioenergetics and functional neuroprotection

Contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating life-long debilitation in which there are currently no effective treatments. The primary injury site presents a complex environment marked by subsequent secondary pathophysiological cascades involving excessive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production, glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, and delayed neuronal apoptosis.

Low Dose Cadmium Exposure Induces Peribronchiolar Fibrosis through Site Specific Phosphorylation of Vimentin

Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has been associated with development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The mechanisms and signaling pathways whereby Cd causes pathological peribronchiolar fibrosis, airway remodeling and subsequent airflow obstruction remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether low dose Cd exposure induces vimentin phosphorylation and YAP1 activation leading to peribronchiolar fibrosis and subsequent airway remodeling.

Chronic TNFα Exposure Induces Robust Proliferation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, but not Schwann Cells

TNFα is persistently elevated in many injury and disease conditions. Previous reports of cytotoxicity of TNFα for oligodendrocytes and their progenitors suggest that the poor endogenous remyelination in patients with traumatic injury or multiple sclerosis may be due in part to persistent inflammation. Understanding the effects of inflammatory cytokines on potential cell therapy candidates is therefore important for evaluating the feasibility of their use.

Leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin versus platelet-rich fibrin block in ridge splitting technique with simultaneous implant placement: a clinical and radiographic study

The present study was designed to compare clinically and radiographically between leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) and L-PRF mixed with bone graft [platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) block] in ridge splitting technique (RST) with simultaneous implant placement. This study was carried out on 30 patients with partial edentulous narrow anterior maxillary ridge.

Development of pre-implantation porcine blastocysts cultured within alginate hydrogel systems either supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 or conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp Peptide

Although deficiencies in porcine blastocyst elongation play a significant role in early embryonic mortality and establishment of within-litter developmental variation, the exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased within the uterine milieu during early porcine pregnancy and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that binds to cell surface integrins on the uterine endometrium and trophectoderm, promoting cell adhesion and migration.

Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas in histological preparations of human brain tissue, determine sulci most consistently related with mPFC areal boundaries, and use these sulci to delineate mPFC areas in MRIs.

3H-1,2-Dithiole-3-thione as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke through Nrf2 defense pathway

Cerebral ischemic stroke accounts for more than 80% of all stroke cases. During cerebral ischemia, reactive oxygen species produced in brain tissue induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. D3T, the simplest compound of the cyclic, sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, is found in cruciferous vegetables and has been reported to induce antioxidant genes and glutathione biosynthesis through activation of Nrf2.

Does circumferential tumor location affect the circumferential resection margin status in mid and low rectal cancer?

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of circumferential tumor location on circumferential resection margin (CRM) status and the depth of tumor invasion in mid and low rectal cancer.

Evaluation of Long-Term Cryostorage of Brain Tissue Sections for Quantitative Histochemistry

Storage of tissue sections for long periods allows multiple samples, acquired over months or years, to be processed together, in the same reagents, for quantitative histochemical studies. Protocols for freezer storage of free-floating frozen sections using sucrose with different additives have been reported and assert that storage has no effect on histochemistry, but no quantitative support has been provided.

Cellular GABAergic Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)-3-Hydroxy-Pregnan-20-One (3α,5α-THP) Immunostaining Levels Are...

The GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) enhances GABAergic activity and produces subjective effects similar to ethanol (EtOH). The effect of chronic alcohol exposure on 3α,5α-THP concentrations has been studied in mouse, rat, and monkey limbic brain areas.