Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by prominent loss of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and motor symptoms, such as resting tremor and bradykinesia. Evidence suggests that neuroinflammation may play a critical role in PD pathogenesis.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Parkin (which encoded by Park2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene that has casually been linked to autosomal recessive early onset familial PD.
Increasing evidence suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may raise the risk of developing late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegeneration.
Approximately, 7–10 million people in the world suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the protective effect of estrogens against nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in PD.