Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory “M1” macrophages contribute to development of DN. Previous studies by us and others have reported that macrophage cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a role in polarization and maintenance of a macrophage tissue reparative “M2” phenotype. We examined the effects of macrophage COX-2 on development of DN in type I diabetes.
Given the diabesity and Metabolic Syndrome epidemics, fatty liver disease is reaching epidemic proportions. Relatively indolent, this disease is often asymptomatic and the patient is often made aware of its presence only during a routine physical exam. Nevertheless, fatty livers are more susceptible to insult compared to their non-fatty counterparts and persons with fatty livers are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality following consumption of commonly used substances such as alcohol (EtOH) and acetaminophen (APAP).