Both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with widespread epigenetic changes, with most evidence suggesting global hypomethylation in AD. It is, however, unclear how these age-related epigenetic changes are linked to molecular aberrations as expressed in animal models of AD. Here, we investigated age-related changes of epigenetic markers of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in a range of animal models of AD, and their correlations with amyloid plaque load.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of parenchymal amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently there are no effective treatments for AD. Immunotherapeutic approaches under development are hampered by complications related to ineffectual clearance of CAA.
Pur-alpha is a highly conserved sequence-specific DNA and RNA binding protein with established roles in DNA replication, RNA translation, cell cycle regulation, and maintenance of neuronal differentiation. Prior studies have shown that mice lacking Pur-alpha (−/−) display decreased neurogenesis and impaired neuronal differentiation.
There is now compelling evidence that TNFR2 is constitutively expressed on CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and TNF-TNFR2 interaction is critical for the activation, expansion and functional stability of Tregs. However, we showed that the expression of TNFR2 was also up-regulated on CD4+ Foxp3− effector T cells (Teffs) upon TCR stimulation.
Interactions between C-C chemokine receptor types 2 (CCR2) and 5 (CCR5) and their ligands, including CCL2 and CCL5, mediate fibrogenesis by promoting monocyte/macrophage recruitment and tissue infiltration, as well as hepatic stellate cell activation.
Closely related extracellular metalloproteinases bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) and mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL1) are co-expressed in various tissues and have been suggested to have overlapping roles in the biosynthetic processing of extracellular matrix components. Early lethality of mice null for the BMP1 gene Bmp1 or the mTLL1 gene Tll1 has impaired in vivo studies of these proteinases.
Approximately, 7–10 million people in the world suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the protective effect of estrogens against nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in PD.
Tie2 promoter-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in mice leads to osteopetrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vascular disease is associated with loss of PPARγ in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), we evaluated the role of PPARγ in PMVEC functions, such as angiogenesis and migration.
Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2).
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Neuroinflammation appears to play an important role in AD pathogenesis. Ligands of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for activated microglia, have been used as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to reflect neuroinflammation in humans and mouse models.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activate during injury to orchestrate the liver's inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. A critical feature of HSC activation is the rapid induction of β-PDGFR, which drives cellular fibrogenesis and proliferation; in contrast, normal liver has minimal β-PDGFR expression.
Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin+/− and mdx:utrophin−/− mice were
examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span.
Transgenic mice with brain amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques immunized with aggregated Aβ1-42 have reduced cerebral amyloid burden. However, the use of Aβ1-42 in humans may not be appropriate because it crosses the blood brain barrier, forms toxic fibrils, and can seed fibril formation.