Age-related epigenetic changes in hippocampal subregions of four animal models of Alzheimer's disease

Both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with widespread epigenetic changes, with most evidence suggesting global hypomethylation in AD. It is, however, unclear how these age-related epigenetic changes are linked to molecular aberrations as expressed in animal models of AD. Here, we investigated age-related changes of epigenetic markers of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in a range of animal models of AD, and their correlations with amyloid plaque load.

Innate Immunity Stimulation via Toll-like Receptor 9 Ameliorates Vascular Amyloid Pathology in Tg-SwDI mice with Associated Cognitive Benefits

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of parenchymal amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently there are no effective treatments for AD. Immunotherapeutic approaches under development are hampered by complications related to ineffectual clearance of CAA.

Memory deficits, gait ataxia and neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebellum in mice that are heterozygous for Pur-alpha

Pur-alpha is a highly conserved sequence-specific DNA and RNA binding protein with established roles in DNA replication, RNA translation, cell cycle regulation, and maintenance of neuronal differentiation. Prior studies have shown that mice lacking Pur-alpha (−/−) display decreased neurogenesis and impaired neuronal differentiation.

TNFR2 expression by CD4 effector T cells is required to induce full-fledged experimental colitis

There is now compelling evidence that TNFR2 is constitutively expressed on CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and TNF-TNFR2 interaction is critical for the activation, expansion and functional stability of Tregs. However, we showed that the expression of TNFR2 was also up-regulated on CD4+ Foxp3− effector T cells (Teffs) upon TCR stimulation.

Antifibrotic Effects of the Dual CCR2/CCR5 Antagonist Cenicriviroc in Animal Models of Liver and Kidney Fibrosis

Interactions between C-C chemokine receptor types 2 (CCR2) and 5 (CCR5) and their ligands, including CCL2 and CCL5, mediate fibrogenesis by promoting monocyte/macrophage recruitment and tissue infiltration, as well as hepatic stellate cell activation. 

BMP1-like proteinases are essential to the structure and wound healing of skin

Closely related extracellular metalloproteinases bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) and mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL1) are co-expressed in various tissues and have been suggested to have overlapping roles in the biosynthetic processing of extracellular matrix components. Early lethality of mice null for the BMP1 gene Bmp1 or the mTLL1 gene Tll1 has impaired in vivo studies of these proteinases.

Inhibition of p38 pathway-dependent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in estrogen receptor alpha knockout mice

Approximately, 7–10 million people in the world suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the protective effect of estrogens against nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in PD.

Loss of PPARγ in endothelial cells leads to impaired angiogenesis

Tie2 promoter-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in mice leads to osteopetrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vascular disease is associated with loss of PPARγ in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), we evaluated the role of PPARγ in PMVEC functions, such as angiogenesis and migration.

Proximal tubule-derived colony stimulating factor-1 mediates polarization of renal macrophages and dendritic cells, and recovery in acute kidney injury

Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2). 

In Vivo Detection of Age- and Disease-Related Increases in Neuroinflammation by 18F-GE180 TSPO MicroPET Imaging in Wild-Type and Alzheimer's Transgenic Mice

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Neuroinflammation appears to play an important role in AD pathogenesis. Ligands of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for activated microglia, have been used as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to reflect neuroinflammation in humans and mouse models.

Induction and Contribution of β-PDGFR Signaling by Hepatic Stellate Cells to Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy in Mice

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activate during injury to orchestrate the liver's inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. A critical feature of HSC activation is the rapid induction of β-PDGFR, which drives cellular fibrogenesis and proliferation; in contrast, normal liver has minimal β-PDGFR expression. 

Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis

Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin+/− and mdx:utrophin−/− mice were
examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span.

Immunization with a Nontoxic/Nonfibrillar Amyloid-β Homologous Peptide Reduces Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Pathology in Transgenic Mice

Transgenic mice with brain amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques immunized with aggregated Aβ1-42 have reduced cerebral amyloid burden. However, the use of Aβ1-42 in humans may not be appropriate because it crosses the blood brain barrier, forms toxic fibrils, and can seed fibril formation.