brain

Brain Inflammation and Alzheimer's-Like Pathology in Individuals Exposed to Severe Air Pollution

Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation.

Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the pyramidal tract in developing rats

Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons.

Alcohol and Stress Activation of Microglia and Neurons: Brain Regional Effects

Cycles of alcohol and stress are hypothesized to contribute to alcohol use disorders. How this occurs is poorly understood, although both alcohol and stress activate the neuroimmune system – the immune molecules and cells that interact with the nervous system. The effects of alcohol and stress on the neuroimmune system are mediated in part by peripheral signaling molecules.

Profiling coping strategies in male and female rats: Potential neurobehavioral markers of increased resilience to depressive symptoms

Coping strategies have been associated with differential stress responsivity, perhaps providing a valuable neurobiological marker for susceptibility to the emergence of depressogenic symptoms or vulnerability to other anxiety-related disorders. Rats profiled with a flexible coping phenotype, for example, exhibit increased neurobiological markers of emotional regulation compared to active and passive copers (Bardi et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2014).

Persistent Decreases in Adult Subventricular and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Following Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) matures during adolescence to adult levels. Binge drinking is prevalent in adolescent humans, and could alter brain neurogenesis and maturation in a manner that persists into adulthood. To determine the impact of adolescent binge drinking on adult neurogenesis, Wistar rats received adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (5.0 g/kg/day, i.g., 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day, P25–P54) and sacrificed on P57 or P95. Neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation using immunohistochemistry was determined in the DG and SVZ.

Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas in histological preparations of human brain tissue, determine sulci most consistently related with mPFC areal boundaries, and use these sulci to delineate mPFC areas in MRIs.

Cellular GABAergic Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)-3-Hydroxy-Pregnan-20-One (3α,5α-THP) Immunostaining Levels Are...

The GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) enhances GABAergic activity and produces subjective effects similar to ethanol (EtOH). The effect of chronic alcohol exposure on 3α,5α-THP concentrations has been studied in mouse, rat, and monkey limbic brain areas.

Enhanced dopaminergic neurotoxicity mediated by MPTP in IL-32β transgenic mice

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by prominent loss of the nigral dopaminergic neurons and motor symptoms, such as resting tremor and bradykinesia. Evidence suggests that neuroinflammation may play a critical role in PD pathogenesis.

Innate Immunity Stimulation via Toll-like Receptor 9 Ameliorates Vascular Amyloid Pathology in Tg-SwDI mice with Associated Cognitive Benefits

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of parenchymal amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently there are no effective treatments for AD. Immunotherapeutic approaches under development are hampered by complications related to ineffectual clearance of CAA.

Parkin Deficiency Exacerbate Ethanol-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by P38 Pathway dependent inhibition of autophagy and mitochondrial function

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Parkin (which encoded by Park2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene that has casually been linked to autosomal recessive early onset familial PD.